Teachers need to explore and find new teaching approaches in order to keep their students engaged and interested in the class. One such approach that teachers try and are really effective is the project method of teaching, also known as project-based learning.
It is a very effective and engaging method of teaching. It is based on experience-centered learning to help students socialize easily. This approach is based on certain principles:
- The principle of utility means that the project should be closer to one’s social life.
- The principle of readiness states that the students must actively participate in finding the solution.
- The principle of purpose that motivates learning purpose.
- The principle of activity that helps students to stay active towards their curiosity,
- The principle of experience that helps students to learn from first hand experiences.
- The principle of reality helps students to prepare for real life experiences.
- The principle of freedom means that the desire for an activity must be spontaneous and not forced by the teacher.
- The principle of social experience helps students to build their social skills by working in groups.
These principles help students to perform project-based learning activities. The project method of teaching was formulated by educator William H. Kilpatrick. He introduced this method in some steps but before that let us understand the characteristics of the project method of teaching.
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Characteristics of project method of teaching
There are certain characteristics of the project method of teaching which are as follows:
- A project method involves a specific and achievable goal.
- It includes purposeful and realistic activities that promote learning.
- Students are responsible for planning and executing their learning activities.
- It emphasizes learning through practical application.
- The project method is designed to enhance learning through play and exploration.
- It provides direct and authentic experiences.
- Students work in groups and receive training for collaboration and teamwork, which prepares them for future professional settings.
- It encourages students to express themselves freely and fosters spontaneity.
- It helps to develop practical skills and abilities.
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- The project method is democratic and promotes equality by giving all participants equal rights, duties, and responsibilities.
Steps of project method of teaching
Here are the steps that you need to follow in order to use the project method of teaching:
1. Project selection
The project selection step of the project method involves picking out the project work. Students are presented with various problems and are required to select a project that provides the greatest value and addresses a specific practical requirement.
Throughout this process, teachers act as mentors, guiding and encouraging students to make informed decisions based on their skills and interests.
In the planning phase of this method, students are required to create a plan for the project work where the teacher can guide them and raise objections and problems that can occur in the project. In the project method of teaching, students can bring together their views and create discussions and complete the projects by learning practical skills as well as teamwork.
After the planning phase comes the execution phase, where the students start working on the project. The students assign duties to one another on the basis of their interests and capabilities.
Each student will make a unique contribution to the project, which may involve activities such as collecting data, conducting site visits, researching information, and studying historical records.
The teacher assumes the role of a guide once more, furnishing students with the required knowledge and guidance to stay on the correct path.
The final stage of the project-based teaching method is the step of evaluation. After completing the project as planned, the teacher conducts a comprehensive review of the entire work, assessing the performance of each student. During this evaluation, any mistakes made during the process are documented for future reference.
5. Reporting & Recording
In this stage of the project method of teaching, every step of the work is documented and recorded in a book format in a specific order. This report must encompass the proposal, plan, deliberations, duties assigned to each student and the extent to which they completed them.
It should also include information about places visited and surveyed, recommendations for the future, and any other relevant details. At the conclusion of the project, this book-formatted report is submitted to the teacher for evaluation.
Types of project method of teaching
There are multiple types of project methods of teaching that teachers can use in the classroom. These are broadly classified into four categories as follows:
1. Constructive method
In the constructive project method of teaching, students are instructed to construct something related to social life, such as maps, parcels, models, charts, etc. These projects help students to learn critical thinking skills, problem-solving, and decision-making skills to create a tangible outcome. This approach enables students to develop a deep understanding of the subject matter and promotes active learning.
2. Artistic method
In incorporating an artistic method into the project method of teaching, educators can encourage students to explore their creativity and express themselves through various artistic mediums. In this, the students learn about visual arts, creative writing, design, and performing arts.
3. Problem solving method
In the problem-solving method of project method teaching technique, A problem-solving method is a valuable tool for addressing real-world challenges that can arise in various contexts, such as sending an email, managing bank accounts, or operating specific products.
By using this method, students can develop practical skills that will help them navigate social situations more effectively and become more proficient in their daily lives.
4. Group work methods
In this method, students work together as a group to accomplish a designated task, with the teacher serving as a facilitator. This can range from a sophisticated engineering project that necessitates collaboration between various fields of knowledge to something as straightforward as establishing a school garden.
Advantage of project method of teaching
There are multiple advantages to using a project method of teaching. The ways in which it can help teachers as well as students. Some of the advantages are:
- The project-based learning activities help students to learn by doing, and this helps in active learning. This gives students a first-hand experience of things and increases their thinking capacity.
- By using this approach, students can enhance their ability to be self-reliant and take responsibility for their own learning. They can gain valuable experience in learning independently and develop a personalized learning style that works best for them.
- It helps in improving collaboration skills in students. They learn to build strong relations at both professional and personal levels, which makes the experience very interesting and insightful.
- This teaching approach helps students to improve their communication skills as well as their critical thinking skills.
Disadvantages of project method of teaching
With advantages come along disadvantages, and so is in the project method of teaching approach. Here are some of the disadvantages of the project method of teaching:
- Project-based learning activities are very time-consuming
- This method requires experienced teachers, and thus only some teachers can conduct these activities leading to a shortage of teachers.
- The project method of teaching is best suited for subjects that demand hands-on, practical knowledge. As a result, subjects like art, literature, and others that don’t require as much practical application may not derive as much benefit from this teaching approach.
The project method of teaching is a really helpful teaching approach that helps teachers to make the classroom interesting and engaging. This approach to teaching has interesting types and both advantages and disadvantages that make them interesting. If you are teaching and looking to make your classroom interesting, try this approach and make your classroom engaging.
Exploring The Project Method Of Teaching FAQs
A1: Project-based learning is an effective and engaging method of teaching. It is based on experience-centered learning to help students socialize easily.
A2: The benefits of using project-based learning are that it improves communication skills, critical thinking skills, collaboration among students, and many more.
A3: It can be applied from grade level to high-school level as per students’ subjects.
A4: Some common challenges associated with project-based learning are that it is time-consuming, uncommitted study groups, too much responsibility, and many more.
A5: To access students in project-based learning, teachers access them on the basis of their participation, performance, and results.